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Diploma in Diagnostic Imaging (Radiography)



Introduction
A Diagnostic Radiographer is responsible for the production anatomical images of the human body for the purpose detecting and determining diseases. He/she does this by using a variety of imaging modalities such as X-ray machines, Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Ultrasound and Radionuclide Imaging. He/she must be competent in handling these various sophisticated and expensive equipment and also in performing the various imaging procedures. In carrying out his/her duties, he/she has a duty of care to provide the best patient care to every patient that he/she comes into contact with.

The Diploma in Diagnostic Imaging (Radiography) programme at MSU is a 3 year full-time course. It will prepare students with a solid foundation in knowledge, skills and attitude in anatomy and physiology, pathology, radiation physics, and the professional and technical disciplines related to diagnostic imaging science. It would serve as a platform for its graduates to pursue their career pathway in the radiation technology as a Diagnostic Radiographer.

Academic Requirement
Total Credit
Compulsory/Core: 94 credits
Electives: none

Course Duration
Total Semester: 9 (6 Long semesters and 3 short semesters)
Duration: 3 years

Intakes
Major Intake: Mar/May/Nov

Core Subject Description

Anatomy and Physiology I
This subject is the study of human anatomy, physiology and associated medical terminology. Topics for this subject include cells, tissues, organs, the blood, the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system, the nervous system, the special senses, the endocrine system and the respiratory system.

General Physics
This subject introduces students to the various common topics of general physics such as energy and matter, measurements and units, physical quantities, internal energy, temperature and heat, atomic structure, electricity, magnetism, electronics, light and sound.

Pharmacology
This subject provides introductory material on pharmacological nomenclature, drug classifications, pharmacokinetics, and drugs used in imaging. It also offers comprehensive coverage of diagnostic contrast agents, along with drug administration procedures, emergency responses to drug reactions, and legal and ethical aspects of medication administration.

Anatomy And Physiology II
This subject is the study of human anatomy, physiology and associated medical terminology. Topics for this subject include the digestive system, the urinary system, the skin, the skeleton, the joints, the muscular system and the reproductive system.

General Pathology
This subject is about the study of human disease and disease process in general terms without dealing specific disease in very detail. Topics includes: cell and tissue damage, inflammation, healing, infection, immunity, neoplasia, cardiovascular diseases, and more.

Patient Care in Medical Imaging

Content is designed to provide the basic concepts of patient care, including consideration for the physical and psychological needs of the patient and family. Routine and emergency patient care procedures will be described, as well as infection control procedures utilizing standard precautions. The role of the radiographer in patient education will be identified.

Radiation Physics
This subject is the study about radiations (particularly X and gamma rays) and their characteristics. Students will gain an in-depth knowledge about radiations used in imaging technology.

Image Processing
This subject is about the principles of exposure formulation, image quality factors and variables, quality assurance and testing, film and image processing.

Radiobiology
This course will provide students the theories and principles of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living systems. Radiation affects on biologic molecules & organisms and factors affecting biological response are explored. Acute and long-term effects of ionizing radiation exposure are discussed. Applications in diagnostic imaging will used.

Radiographic Equipment And Instrumentation I
This course is about the study of the equipment and physics of x-ray production, basic x-ray circuits, and the relationship of equipment components to the imaging process. This course will explore the concepts of electricity and magnetism as applied to construction and operation of the x-ray machine. Factors and interactions involved in x-ray production will be discussed.

Radiographic Technique and Projections I

This subject is about the study of the proper manipulation of radiographic equipment, positioning and alignment of the anatomical structure and equipment, and evaluation of images for proper demonstration of intermediate anatomy and related pathology.

Radiographic Anatomy
This subject is about the study of the human anatomy as seen in radiographic images. Student will learn to identify normal and abnormal structures seen in radiographic films and CT images.

Radiographic Equipment and Instrumentation II

This subject is the study about the various radiographic equipments commonly found in a diagnostic department. Students will learn about the design and components of the equipment and will also learn to operate the machine.

Radiographic Technique and Projections II

This subject is about the study of the proper manipulation of radiographic equipment, positioning and alignment of the anatomical structure and equipment, and evaluation of images for proper demonstration of intermediate anatomy and related pathology.

Computed Tomography Physics and Equipment
This course develops in the learner the basic knowledge and understanding of the concepts of Computed Tomography in the clinical realm. The aim is to provide the student with an overview of the development of Computed Tomography, the chemical and physiological basis for the use of iodinated contrast, and an understanding of radiation dosimetry in Computed Tomography.

Radiographic Techniques and Projections III
This subject is about the study of the proper manipulation of radiographic equipment, positioning and alignment of the anatomical structure and equipment, and evaluation of images for proper demonstration of intermediate anatomy and related pathology.

Sectional Anatomy
This course is a study of human anatomy as viewed in cross-section. A comparison will be made of planar anatomy, as viewed in conventional radiography, and cross-sectional anatomy and how they relate to computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

Computed Tomography Imaging Techniques
This course provides students with the knowledge and practical skills necessary to undertake routine CT procedures. Topics include CT technique for the head and neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and extremities.

Introduction to Special Imaging Modalities
This course introduces students to the other imaging modalities i.e. MRI, RNI and ultrasonography. Topics includes basic principles, intrumentation and applications.

Radiographic Film Evaluation
This subject is the study of radiographic image quality. Students will be taught how to identify the good and the bad radiograph. This course will acquaint the student with the necessary skills to determine a radiograph's acceptability and to learn to correct errors.

Radiographic Technique and Projections IV
This subject is about the study of the proper manipulation of radiographic equipment, positioning and alignment of the anatomical structure and equipment, and evaluation of images for proper demonstration of intermediate anatomy and related pathology.

CLINICAL PRACTICE I, II, III & IV
This subject is a 4 credit hour subject. Therefore, students will spent a total of 8 weeks of clinical practice at various units or stations within the medical imaging department in the hospital or medical center. Students will spent an equal amount of time at each unit. There are a total of 9 units or stations as listed below. The total hours for 8 weeks of clinical practice is 8 x 6 hours per day x 6 days per week = 288. Divided by 9 units or stations, students will spend 32 hours per unit or station. The clinical practice can be implemented by using a ‘block system’ whereby students will undertake their clinical practice for a straight 8 weeks of the 14 weeks semester or it can be broken into two 4 weeks blocks. At each clinical unit or station, students will participate in every procedure. However, their participation or involvement will depend on the level of student experience and also the complexity of the procedure. Students will progress through these 3 levels:

    Level 1 - familiarisation, observation, assisting and limited performance role.
    Level 2 - independent performance and with guidance in the more difficult procedures.
    Level 3 - independent performance with minimal supervision.

FAQs

Career Opportunities:
Upon successful completion of the course, graduates can apply to become a practicing Diagnostic Radiographer in government or private hospitals and medical centers. As the length of service and experience increases, many opportunities for promotion and increment in salary can be expected. Eventually, He/she can be promoted to become the head of department or even one of the hospital’s Director.

Many companies that produces imaging equipment such as Siemens, General Electric, Toshiba, and Phillips hire Diagnostic Radiographers to become their Application Specialists. Their main function is to help Radiographers learn how to use new equipment bought from the company. This job involves a lot of travel.

Graduates may also pursue higher education to higher level i.e. Degree, Master and PhD both locally and overseas. Most graduates who further studies usually become a lecturer.

Expected Salary
Entry qualification to become a Radiographer is either a Diploma or a Degree in Diagnostic Imaging.
Public Sector: A Diploma Radiographer can expect to earn a starting salary of around RM1500 (including allowances).
Private Sector: The amount of starting salary can vary from the above amount. However, the total amount of monthly salary earned (inclusive of allowances) is subject to negotiation and can be higher than that earned in the public sector but normally range between RM1,500-RM2,000.

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