Bachelor of Optometry (Hons)

Introduction

Optometrists are the health care professionals who provide eye care services in Malaysia. They are trained to examine various aspects of health status of the eye such as the defects of sight, ocular diseases and problems related to general health. They are also trained to fit and supply optical devices such as spectacles, contact lenses, low vision aids and visual therapy appliances. Optometrists are responsible for the detection, diagnosis and management as well as the rehabilitation of conditions of visual system.

The Bachelor of Optometry (Hons) program at MSU is a four (4) years course. The program provides a career path in optometry profession that leads to the well trained optometrist. Optometry programmes are specifically designed to provide students with the knowledge and skills to allow necessary requirements to practice in all areas of optometry. To qualify for registration with MOC, the students require to study the four years Bachelor of Optometry (Hons) at MSU and successful completion all the pre-registration qualification set by MOC. As a registered practitioner, optometrists should be able to independently examine, diagnose and manage the patient’s visual problems. 


Academic Requirement

Total Credit   
Compulsory / Core: 141 credits
Electives: none


Course Duration

Total Semester: 11 (8 Long semesters and 3 short semesters)
Duration: 4 years


Intakes

Major Intake: May/Nov


Core Subject Description

Basic Accountancy and Public Relations
This subject provides the students with the knowledge in statistical analysis, business aspects and accountancy applied in daily management of an optometric practice. Students will also be exposed to the understanding of the basic concept of mathematics applied in statistic and accountancy. 

Optics
This course covers many introductory features of light and vision. It concentrates on basic optics, images, optical instruments, anatomy of the human eye, photography, light perception, wave phenomena and color. In pursuing these topics, we attempt to develop the student’s curiosity and powers of observation about the physical world. Understanding of these many topics is achieved through a healthy application of the scientific method and some exercise in using scientific models.

Anatomy and physiology
This course introduces anatomy and physiology provide the critical concepts that help us to understand the human body. Anatomy is the study of the structures of body parts and their relationships to one another. Body structure can be seen, felt and examined closely. Student will be taught on anatomy of the human body such as general osteology, general myology, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, endocrine system, reproductive system, senses etc. Physiology concerns the function of the body’s structural machinery, that is, how the parts of the body work and carry out their life-sustaining activities. Student will also be taught on physiology topics such as cardiovascular system, respiratory system, endocrine system, reproductive system, senses, nervous system etc.

Biochemistry
This course introduces some recent topics such as cylic nucleotides cyclic AMP and cylic GMP, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, body metabolisms, clinical significance of enzymes and isoenzymes. Its also focus on general properties and importance of biomolecules’s chemistry. Students will also be taught on principles and basic laboratory techniques in clinical biochemistry for diagnosis of the disease such as hepar, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, heart disease and other systemic diseases.

Ophthalmic optics
This course introduces to the students about geometrical methods applied to the optics lenses, mirrors and prisms. Topics such as thin lens, eye models, magnification, astigmatism, prism properties of lenses and thick lenses will be exposed to the student.

Visual perception
This course is about the visual process. Students will also learn about basic concepts of neurophysiology and psychophysical test in optometric examination, how to do ancillary test and how to interpret data obtained from the tests. Students will also learn how to perform and how to interpret the results of the tests and manage the neurophysiology and psychophysical abnormalities.

Visual Optics
This course is an introduction of the visual optics. Students will also learn about basic concepts in optic principles; model eye, ametropia, retinal image size, accommodation, presbyopia, aphakia, anisometropia, astigmatism, ocular aberrations. Students also will be thought on visual acuity, spectacle magnification, anisometropia, aniseikonia, myopia low stimulus, entoptics phenomena, myopia developments and ocular aberration in optometric examination.

Dispensing
This course provides detailed exposure to students about physical characteristics and compatibility of ophthalmic lenses and material. Optical dispensing provides knowledge and skills about sequence of operation; dispense spectacle frames and lenses. Moreover, selection, cutting, chipping and glazing of lenses, manufacturing of glasses and plastic. It also includes the manipulation and repairs of spectacles and mountings.

Clinical optometry
This subject provides the students with the theoretical knowledge and skills in clinical refraction. Students will also learn about retinoscopy, spherical ametropia and astigmatism, measurement of distance and near visual acuity, subjective monocular refraction, binocular balancing and other related topics. This subject will also provides detailed insight into the major ophthalmic investigative techniques for measuring visual function and observing ocular structures. Students also will learn how to develop the skill of critical evaluation of colour vision test, tonometry, perimetry, keratometry and biometry and able to present and concise critical review of tests in relating to ophthalmic examinations. This course will promote an increased understanding of the concept of assessing visual functions and observing ocular structures. This course also will expose the students to specific techniques by way of some practical demonstration, although the emphasis in this module is on critical evaluation and understanding of the individual ophthalmic investigative techniques and not the promotion of clinical expertise.

Binocular vision and ocular motility
This subject provides the students with theory, the practical clinical sessions and video-based examples of binocular vision and oculo-motor anomalies, diagnosis procedures and management.

Ocular Diseases
This course will give knowledge to students about some typical ocular disease that can occur to human eye. Besides that, students will also learn about other related eye disease and eye disorders. At the end of the course student will be able to identify the ocular disease and use appropriate techniques to detect eye diseases.

General and Ocular pharmacology
This course introduces to the students about ocular therapeutics and drug delivery. It is a subject of interest from various disciplines such as chemical, biochemical, medical, pharmaceutical and toxicological, it truly presents a unique situation requiring a multi-disciplinary approach in understanding and  addressing various problems.

Advance Orthoptics
This subject provides the students with the theoretical knowledge and skills in the principles visual function, eye movements, eye alignment, and advanced binocular vision anomalies in children and adults. Students will learn the diagnosis, clinical management and visual therapy for orthoptics and binocular vision anomalies cases.

Contact lens
This subject provides the students with the theoretical knowledge and skills in the principles of contact lens structure, design, selection and fitting principles, management contact lens complication, hygiene and contact lens care.

Low vision and Geriatric
This subject provides the students with the knowledge, skills and management of the low vision patients. Student will learn the functional and social impact to the low vision patients, visual functions assessment of low vision and geriatric vision of special population, lighting modification and training needed. Students also will learn the diagnosis, clinical management and visual therapy for low vision and geriatric vision.

Paediatric Optometry & Learning Disabilities
This subject provides the students with the theoretical knowledge, skills and clinical approach in examining paediatric patients. Students will introduce to knowledge of development stages, the principles of visual function, eye movements, eye alignment, and advanced binocular vision anomalies in children. Students will also learn how to make a diagnosis, clinical management and visual therapy for orthoptics and binocular vision anomalies cases found in children.

Diagnosis & Vision Care Management
This course provides detail insight into the diagnosis and clinical management of the optometric problems found in optometry practice. Students also will learn how to develop the skill of making diagnosis and prescribed an appropriate management to the optometric cases.

Primary Care Optometry
This course provides detailed insight into the major initial clinical posting and comprehensive optometric and contact lens examination to the patient in optometry practice. Students also will learn how to develop the skill of communication with various types of patient and management optometric cases. This course will promote an increased understanding of the concept of analysis of optometric cases managed by students.

Public Health and Community optometry
This subject provides the students with the theoretical knowledge and skills public health and the role of optometry in community health and to have a well developed sense of their ethical, professional and legal responsibilities.

Specialization Care Clinic
This course provides clinical experience in clinics inside campus and hospitals and also provides detailed insight into the major ophthalmic investigative techniques for measuring visual function and observing ocular structures. Students also will learn how to develop the skill of critical evaluation of ocular structures and measuring visual function in optometry sub-disciplines such as ocular disease, low vision, paediatric eye care and binocular vision and orthoptics. Students also will learn how to develop the skill of critical evaluation of research material and able to present and concise critical review of published research findings in one or more areas of the syllabus. This course also will expose the students to specific techniques by way of some practical demonstration, although the emphasis in this module is on critical evaluation and understanding of the individual ophthalmic investigative techniques and not the promotion of clinical expertise.

Clinical Problem Solving in Optometry
This course provides detail insight into the comprehensive problems solving of the optometric cases found in optometry practice. Students also will learn how to develop the skill of making diagnosis, differential diagnosis and prescribed an appropriate management to the optometric cases.


Professional Recognition

Malaysian Qualification Agency (MQA)
Malaysian Optical Council (MOC) Ministry of Health


FAQs

Career Opportunities:

As a professional and registered practitioners, graduates will find ample opportunity in not only availing themselves to careers in optometry but also in government hospitals, academia, optical industry and as well as owned his/her private optometric practice. Organizationally, graduates will find an employment into:

  1. Government hospitals services
  2. Local or international optical industry company
  3. Optical/optometric chain practices
  4. Optical or optometric practices
  5. Universities
  6. Medical/Optical Laboratories
  7. Training and consultancy

Expected Salary

Public Sector: Basic starting monthly salary is around RM2,200-2,800; plus allowances (such as housing and others).

Private Sector: The amount of basic starting monthly salary can vary from the above amount. However, the total amount of monthly salary earned (inclusive of allowances) is subject to negotiation and which can be higher than that earned in the public sector but normally range between RM2,500-RM3,500.

Own Private Practice: Private practitioners earned good income basically more than RM50,000 yearly.

 

 



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